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The Function of Analytical Chemistry

The Function of Analytical Chemistry  

Chemical analysis is an indispensable servant of modern technology whilst it partly depends on that modern technology for its operation. The two have in fact developed hand in hand. From the earliest days of quantitative chemistry in the latter part of the eighteenth century, chemical analysis has provided an important basis for chemical development.
For example, the combustion studies of La  Voisier and the atomic theory proposed by Dalton had their bases in quantitative analytical evidence.  The transistor provides a more recent example of an invention which would have been almost impossible to develop  without sensitive and accurate chemical analysis. This example is particularly interesting as it illustrates the synergic development that is so frequently observed in differing fields. Having underpinned the  development of the transistor, analytical instrumentation now makes extremely wide use of it. In modern technology, it is impossible to over-estimate the importance of analysis. Some of the major  areas of application are listed below.  

Fundamental Research
  The first steps in unraveling the details of an unknown system frequently involve the identification of its constituents by qualitative chemical analysis. Follow-up investigations usually require structural  information and quantitative measurements. This pattern appears in such diverse areas as the  formulation of new drugs, the examination of meteorites, and studies on the results of heavy ion  bombardment by nuclear physicists.  

Product Development  
The design and development of a new product will often depend upon establishing a link between its  chemical composition and its physical properties or performance. Typical examples are the  development of alloys and of polymer composites.  

Product Quality Control 
 Most manufacturing industries require a uniform product quality. To ensure that this requirement is  met, both raw materials and finished products are subjected to extensive chemical analysis. On the one  hand, the necessary constituents must be kept at the optimum levels, while on the other impurities such  as poisons in foodstuffs must be kept below the maximum allowed by law.  

Monitoring and Control of Pollutants  
Residual heavy metals and organochlorine pesticides represent two well-known pollution problems.  Sensitive and accurate analysis is required to enable the distribution and level of a pollutant in the  environment to be assessed and routine chemical analysis is important in the control of industrial  effluents.  

 In commercial dealings with raw materials such as ores, the value of the ore is set by its metal content.  Large amounts of material are often involved, so that taken overall small differences in concentration  can be of considerable commercial significance. Accurate and reliable chemical analysis is thus  essential.  Medical and Clinical Studies  The levels of various elements and compounds in body fluids are important indicators of physiological  disorders. A high sugar content in urine indicating a diabetic condition and lead in blood are probably  the most well-known examples.  

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1-Freefullpdf for Scientific Publications
2-Principles and Practice of Analytical Chemistry